Resolution 2228 (2015) Adopted by the Security Council at its 7475th meeting, on 29 June 2015
The Security Council,
Reaffirming all its previous resolutions and presidential statements concerning the situation in Sudan and underlining the importance of full compliance with these,
Reaffirming its strong commitment to the sovereignty, unity, independence and territorial integrity of Sudan and its determination to work with the Government of Sudan, in full respect of its sovereignty, to assist in tackling the various challenges in Sudan,
Recalling the importance of the principles of the peaceful settlement of international disputes, good neighbourliness, non-interference and cooperation in the relations among States in the region,
Reaffirming the basic principles of peacekeeping, including consent of the parties, impartiality and non-use of force, except in self-defence and defence of the mandate, and recognizing that the mandate of each peacekeeping mission is specific to the country concerned,
Recalling all its relevant resolutions on women, peace and security, on children and armed conflicts, on the protection of humanitarian and United Nations personnel, and on the protection of civilians in armed conflicts,
Expressing deep concern at the serious deterioration in the security situation in Darfur overall so far in 2015, and the profound negative impact of this on civilians, in particular women and children, in particular through a marked escalation of hostilities between Government forces and rebel armed groups, as well as an escalation of inter-communal conflicts over land, access to resources, migration issues and tribal rivalries, including with the involvement of paramilitary units and tribal militias, and a rise in criminality and banditry targeting the local population; further expressing deep concern that the deteriorating security situation, as characterised by attacks by rebel groups and Government forces, aerial bombardment, by the Government of Sudan, inter-tribal fighting, banditry and criminality, continues to threaten civilians; and reiterating its demand that all parties to the conflict in Darfur immediately end violence, including attacks on civilians, peacekeepers and humanitarian personnel,
In this regard, expressing concern at evidence, collected by AU-UN Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID), of two air-delivered cluster bombs near Kirigiyati, North Darfur, taking note that UNAMID disposed of them safely, and reiterating the Secretary-General’s call on the Government of Sudan to immediately investigate the use of cluster munitions,
Emphasizing that those responsible for violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights must be held accountable and that the Government of Sudan bears the primary responsibility to protect civilians within its territory and subject to its jurisdiction, including protection from crimes against humanity and war crimes,
Recalling its resolution 2117 (2013) and expressing concern at the threat to peace and security in Darfur arising from the illicit transfer, destabilizing accumulation and misuse of small arms and light weapons, and the continued threats to civilians posed by unexploded ordnance,
Expressing deep concern at the significant increase in population displacements in 2014 and so far in 2015 and the consequent increase in humanitarian assistance and protection needs, with 430,000 newly displaced in 2014, around 300,000 of whom have been unable to return to their homes, a total number of long-term Internally-Displaced Persons (IDPs) of 2.5 million and a total number of people in need of humanitarian assistance of 4.4 million,
Recalling the commitments made by the Government of Sudan and other signatories to the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur (DDPD) to ensure the unimpeded access of humanitarian assistance to the population in need and the protection of humanitarian workers and their operations in areas under their control, as well as to guarantee UNAMID unimpeded freedom of movement in all areas and at all times in Darfur in the exercise of its mandate, and further recalling the role of the Implementation Follow-up Commission (IFC) in assessing the implementation of the DDPD,
Expressing concern that the continued denial of access and restrictions imposed on humanitarian actors have left significant gaps in the delivery of humanitarian assistance, calling on the Government of Sudan to ensure humanitarian actors can operate in support of addressing basic needs,
Calling on donors, the Darfur Regional Authority and the Government of Sudan to provide the financial resources necessary to reach those in need,
Reiterating that there can be no military solution to the conflict in Darfur, and that an inclusive political settlement is essential to re-establishing peace, and underscoring the importance of fully addressing the root causes of the conflict in the search for a sustainable peace, which should rapidly deliver real benefits for the Darfuri people, in this regard reiterating its support for the DDPD as a viable framework for the peace process in Darfur, and for its accelerated implementation, as well as the AU High-Level Implementation Panel (AU-HIP) mediated peace talks, and any credible moves to lay the groundwork for an inclusive, comprehensive and nationally-owned National Dialogue in Sudan,
Deploring the fact that some armed groups are impeding the peace process and have continued to resort to violence, reiterating its demand for the release of members of the former movement of Mohamed Bashar, taken captive in May 2013 by JEM-Gibril forces, and condemning any actions by any armed group aimed at forced overthrow of the Government of Sudan,
Noting that UNAMID’s ability to facilitate progress in implementation of the DDPD is hampered by delays and the absence of an inclusive political settlement between the government and non-signatory movements, urging the signatory parties to take the necessary remaining steps to implement the DDPD fully, expressing concern that the humanitarian and security situation, as well as the lack of capacity of the Darfur Regional Authority, hinder the transition from relief to stabilization and development activities, urging donors and the Government of Sudan to honour their pledges and fulfil their obligations in a timely manner, including those commitments made at the conference in Doha in April 2013, and affirming that development can support a lasting peace in Darfur,
Noting that local dispute resolution mechanisms play an important role in preventing and resolving inter-communal conflict, including conflict over natural resources, urging an intensification of effective efforts to prevent local disputes leading to violence, with its corresponding impact on the local civilian populations, acknowledging the efforts of Sudanese authorities and local mediators to mediate in inter-tribal fighting, with support from UNAMID and the UN Country Team (UNCT), and urging their continued work,
Welcoming regional and other initiatives, undertaken in close interaction with the Government of Sudan, to address the root causes of the conflict in Darfur and to promote a sustainable peace, including the convening by the President of Chad, Idriss Deby Itno, of two mediation fora, encouraging the full coordination of such initiatives with the efforts of the Joint Special Representative (JSR), and commending the efforts of the JSR to secure peace, stability and security in Darfur, including through support to international, regional and national efforts to revitalise the peace process and increase its inclusiveness,
Underlining, without prejudice to the Security Council’s primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security, the importance of the partnership between the United Nations and the African Union (AU), consistent with Chapter VIII of the Charter of the United Nations, with regard to the maintenance of peace and security in Africa, particularly in Sudan,
Calling on all parties to comply with their obligations under international human rights law and international humanitarian law, stressing the importance that the Council attaches to ending impunity including through ensuring accountability and bringing to justice the perpetrators of crimes committed by all parties in Darfur, urging the Government of Sudan to comply with its obligations in this respect, welcoming the ongoing investigations by the Special Prosecutor for Darfur appointed by the Government of Sudan and stressing the need for further progress in this regard, reiterating the call for swift progress on the draft Memorandum of Understanding providing for UNAMID and African Union observation of the proceedings of the Special Court, and calling on the Government of Sudan swiftly to investigate attacks against UNAMID, and to bring the perpetrators to justice,
Reaffirming its concern over the negative effect of ongoing violence in Darfur on the stability of Sudan as a whole as well as the region, welcoming the ongoing good relations between Sudan and Chad, including on border control, and encouraging Sudan, Chad and the Central African Republic to continue to cooperate in order to achieve peace and stability in Darfur and the wider region,
Commending the efforts of UNAMID towards promoting peace and stability in Darfur, and reiterating its full support for UNAMID,
Taking note of the completion of the review commissioned by the Secretary-General on 2 July 2014 into the issue of under-reporting, and allegations of manipulation of reporting, by UNAMID, and welcoming the recommendations and conclusions contained in the review and the continued implementation of measures to address this issue,
Determining that the situation in Sudan constitutes a threat to international peace and security,
1. Decides to extend the mandate of UNAMID, as set out in resolution 1769, until 30 June 2016, and further decides that UNAMID shall consist of up to 15,845 military personnel, 1,583 police personnel and 13 formed police units of up to 140 personnel each;
2. Reiterates, in the context of the lack of progress on the benchmarks and the significant deterioration of the security situation, its endorsement of UNAMID’s revised strategic priorities as set out in paragraph 4 of resolution 2148 (2014), namely: the protection of civilians, the facilitation of the delivery of humanitarian assistance and the safety and security of humanitarian personnel; mediation between the Government of Sudan and non-signatory armed movements on the basis of the DDPD, while taking into account ongoing democratic transformation at the national level; and support to the mediation of community conflict, including through measures to address its root causes, in conjunction with UN Country Team; welcomes the steps taken so far by UNAMID to implement the review of UNAMID conducted pursuant to resolution 2113 (2014), and requests that UNAMID continue to align all its activity and direct the use of its resources to the achievement of these priorities, discontinue all other tasks not aligned to these priorities and continue to streamline the mission accordingly, and stresses the importance of the appropriate distribution of tasks and coordination between UNAMID and the UNCT in order to implement the review of UNAMID;
3. Notes that certain elements of UNAMID’s mandate and tasks, as authorized in resolution 1769 (2007), which decided that the mandate of UNAMID shall be as set out in paragraphs 54 and 55 of the report of the Secretary-General and the Chairperson of the African Union Commission of 5 June 2007 (S/2007/307/Rev.1), are no longer relevant, or are either being undertaken by or will soon transition to other entities with comparative advantage, namely those enumerated in paragraphs 54 (g) and (h), 55 (a) (v), 55 (b) (ii-iii), 55 (b) (v) , 55 (b) (x) and 55 (c) (iii-iv) of that report;
4. Underlines that UNAMID must continue to give priority in decisions about the use of available capacity and resources to: (a) the protection of civilians across Darfur, including women and children, through, and without prejudice to the basic principles of peacekeeping, inter alia, continuing to move to a more preventive and pre-emptive posture in pursuit of its priorities and in active defence of its mandate; enhanced early warning; proactive military deployment and active and effective patrolling in areas at high risk of conflict and high concentration of IDPs; more prompt and effective responses to threats of violence against civilians, including through regular reviews of the geographic deployment of UNAMID’s force; securing IDP camps, adjacent areas and areas of return, including development and training of community policing; and (b) ensuring safe, timely and unhindered humanitarian access, and the safety and security of humanitarian personnel and activities, in accordance with relevant provisions of international law and the UN guiding principles on humanitarian assistance; and requests UNAMID to maximize the use of its capabilities, in cooperation with the UNCT and other international and non-governmental actors, in the implementation of its mission-wide comprehensive strategy for the achievement of these objectives;
5. Emphasizes UNAMID’s Chapter VII mandate, as defined in resolution 1769 (2007), to deliver its core tasks to protect civilians without prejudice to the primary responsibility of the Government of Sudan and to ensure the freedom of movement and security of UNAMID’s own personnel and humanitarian workers; recalls that UNAMID is authorized to take all the necessary action in fulfilment of this mandate; and urges UNAMID to deter any threats against itself and its mandate;
6. Stresses that, in the context of the evolving security situation, any refinement of the mission should be based on progress against the benchmarks and the conditions on the ground, and implemented in a gradual, phased, flexible and reversible manner;
7. Commends the efforts of the Joint Special Representative (JSR) to revitalise the peace process and to increase its inclusiveness, guided by the Framework for AU and United Nations facilitation of the Darfur Peace Process, including through renewed engagement of the non-signatory movements; emphasizes the importance of the JSR’s strengthened coordination with the AU High-level Implementation Panel and the United Nations Special Envoy for Sudan and South Sudan in synchronising their mediation efforts and in generating progress on direct negotiations between the Government of Sudan and the Darfur armed movements;
8. Welcomes that progress has been made in implementation of some elements of the DDPD, including the completion of security arrangements for Liberation and Justice Movement and Justice and Equality Movement-Sudan combatants and the conversion of the Liberation and Justice Movement into two political parties, the integration of former rebels into power structures of Sudan but deplores continuing serious delays in overall implementation of the DDPD; urges the signatory parties to implement the DDPD in full, including by ensuring that the institutions established under it are resourced and empowered to carry out their mandates; demands that the non-signatory armed groups refrain from impeding the implementation of the DDPD; and encourages UNAMID, in accordance with its revised strategic priorities, and the UNCT to continue to engage fully in support of implementation of the DDPD;
9. Demands that all parties to the conflict in Darfur, including in particular all the non-signatory armed groups, and other groups immediately cease all acts of violence, and commit themselves to a sustained and permanent ceasefire, in order to bring a stable and durable peace to the region;
10. Reaffirms its support for a Darfur-based internal dialogue that takes place in an inclusive environment with full respect for the civil and political rights of participants, including the full and effective participation of women and IDPs; welcomes the successful completion of the first phase of the Darfur Internal Dialogue and Consultation (DIDC) on 26 May; further welcomes the release of USD 2.5 million by the Government of Sudan as part of its contribution to the funding of the DIDC; expresses concern that prevailing insecurity, and lack of adequate funding, could undermine effective implementation of future phases of the DIDC; calls on the Government of Sudan and the armed groups to ensure the necessary enabling environment; and requests UNAMID to continue to support, monitor and report on the development of the DIDC and the overall environment for it;
11. Calls for an urgent end to inter-tribal clashes, criminality and banditry that affect civilians; further calls for reconciliation and dialogue; and requests UNAMID to continue to support local conflict resolution mechanisms, including with civil society mechanisms;
12. Expresses deep concern over the proliferation of arms, in particular small arms and light weapons and requests UNAMID to continue to cooperate in this context with the Panel of Experts established by resolution 1591 (2005) in order to facilitate their work;
13. Commends UNAMID troop- and police-contributing countries; welcomes that some progress has been made in addressing contingent-owned equipment and self-sustainment shortfalls, but expresses concern that shortfalls remain; and calls for continued efforts by UNAMID, the Secretariat and troop- and police-contributing countries to address such shortfalls, including by providing appropriate training and resources to fulfil priority protection functions, especially in areas necessary for contingents’ temporary deployment capability and ability to conduct long-range patrols;
14. Strongly condemns all attacks on UNAMID; underlines that any attack or threat of attack on UNAMID is unacceptable; demands that there be no recurrence of such attacks and that those responsible be held to account following prompt and thorough investigation; urges UNAMID to take all necessary measures within its rules of engagement to protect UN personnel and equipment; condemns the ongoing impunity for those who attack peacekeepers, and in this regard urges the Government of Sudan to do its utmost to bring all perpetrators of any such crimes to justice and to cooperate with UNAMID to this end;
15. Reiterates its deep concern that hindrances remain to UNAMID in the implementation of its mandate, including movement and access restrictions, caused by insecurity, acts of criminality and significant movement restrictions by Government forces, armed movements and militia groups; calls on all parties in Darfur to remove all obstacles to UNAMID’s full and proper discharge of its mandate, including by ensuring its security and freedom of movement; and in this regard, demands that the Government of Sudan comply with the Status of Forces Agreement fully and without delay, particularly provisions relevant to the movement of patrols in conflict-affected areas and flight clearances, as well as those provisions relevant to the removal of obstacles to the use of UNAMID aerial assets, and the timely processing of UNAMID’s equipment at the port of entry to Sudan;
16. Demands that all parties in Darfur immediately end attacks targeting civilians, peacekeepers and humanitarian personnel, and comply with their obligations under international human rights and humanitarian law; and affirms the Council’s condemnation of all violations of international humanitarian law and violations and abuses of human rights;
17. Expresses serious concern at the deteriorating humanitarian situation in Darfur, and at the threats to and attacks on humanitarian personnel and facilities; expresses concern that access to some conflict areas where vulnerable populations reside remains restricted and that some conflict areas are inaccessible, including in North and Central Darfur and eastern Jebel Marra, due to insecurity, acts of criminality and movement restrictions by Government forces, armed movements and militia groups; welcomes that humanitarian organizations are able to deliver some aid to most people in need of assistance in Darfur; deplores the continued restrictions on humanitarian access in Darfur resulting from increased insecurity, attacks against humanitarian workers, denial of access by the parties to the conflict and bureaucratic impediments imposed by the Government of Sudan; further expresses concern over the insufficient availability of funding for humanitarian actors; stresses the need for the timely issuance of visas and travel permits for humanitarian organizations; and demands that the Government of Sudan, all militias, armed groups and all other stakeholders ensure the safe, timely and unhindered access of humanitarian organizations and relief personnel, and the delivery of humanitarian assistance to populations in need, in accordance with the relevant provisions of international law and United Nations guiding principles of humanitarian assistance, including humanity, impartiality, neutrality and independence;
18. Condemns increased human rights violations and abuses in, and relating to, Darfur, including those involving extrajudicial killings, the excessive use of force, abduction of civilians, acts of sexual- and gender-based violence, violations and abuses against children, and arbitrary arrests and detentions; calls on the Government of Sudan to investigate allegations of such violations and abuses and bring those responsible to justice; expresses deep concern about the situation of all those so detained, including civil society members and IDPs; emphasizes the importance of ensuring, within its current mandate, UNAMID’s and other relevant organizations’ ability to monitor such cases; and in this regard urges the Government of Sudan to extend even greater cooperation with UNAMID towards fulfilment of this goal and to provide accountability and access to justice for victims; calls on the Government of Sudan fully to respect its obligations, including by fulfilling its commitment to lift the state of emergency in Darfur, releasing all political prisoners and allowing free expression;
19. Requests UNAMID to monitor, verify, and draw to the attention of the authorities abuses and violations of human rights, including those committed against women and children, and violations of international humanitarian law, and further requests enhanced, detailed, full and public reporting by the Secretary-General to the Council on this issue, as part of his regular 90-day reports;
20. Requests UNAMID to ensure that any support provided to non-United Nations security forces is provided in strict compliance with the Human Rights Due Diligence Policy on United Nations support to non-United Nations security forces (HRDDP), and requests the Secretary-General to include progress made in implementing the policy in his reports to the Security Council;
21. Urges close coordination among UN missions in the region, including UNAMID, the United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA) and the United Nations Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS), and requests the Secretary-General to ensure effective inter-mission cooperation;
22. Emphasizes the importance of cooperation and information-sharing between UNAMID, UNMISS, MONUSCO, MINUSCA and relevant regional and international partners in addressing the regional threat including of the Lord’s Resistance Army, and recalls its encouragement to UNAMID, within existing capacities and consistent with its mandate, to cooperate and share information in this regard;
23. Stresses the importance of achieving dignified and durable solutions for refugees and internally displaced persons, and of ensuring their full participation in the planning and management of these solutions; demands that all parties to the conflict in Darfur create the conditions conducive to allowing the voluntary, informed, safe, dignified and sustainable return of refugees and internally displaced persons, or, where appropriate, their local integration; in this regard stresses the need for the establishment of a mechanism in order to verify the extent to which these returns are voluntary and informed in nature, and underlines the importance of addressing land issues for the realization of durable solutions in Darfur;
24. Demands that the parties to the conflict immediately cease all acts of sexual and gender-based violence and make and implement specific and time-bound commitments to combat sexual violence, in accordance with resolution 2106 (2013); urges the Government, with the support of the United Nations and African Union, to develop a structured framework through which conflict related sexual violence will be comprehensively addressed, and to allow access for service provision for sexual violence survivors; requests UNAMID to strengthen its reporting on sexual and gender-based violence and actions taken to combat it, including through the swift deployment of Women Protection Advisers; requests the Secretary-General to ensure that the relevant provisions of resolution 1325 (2000), and subsequent resolutions on women, peace and security, are implemented, including supporting the full and effective participation of women during all stages of peace processes, particularly in conflict resolution, post-conflict planning and peacebuilding, including women’s civil society organizations, and to include information on this in his reporting to the Council; and further requests UNAMID to monitor and assess the implementation of these tasks and requests the Secretary-General to include information on this in his reporting to the Council;
25. Demands that the parties to the conflict immediately cease all violations and abuses against children, and develop and implement concrete and time-bound action plans to end and prevent the recruitment and use of children in violation of applicable international law, and requests the Secretary-General to ensure:
(a) continued monitoring and reporting of the situation of children in Darfur; and
(b) continued dialogue with the parties to the conflict towards the development and implementation of the aforementioned action plans, in accordance with resolution 1612 (2005) and subsequent resolutions on children and armed conflict;
26. Underscores the importance of regular review by the Security Council of each UN peacekeeping mission’s progress in implementing its mandate, and recalls its request to the Secretary-General, in close consultation with the AU, and seeking perspectives from all relevant parties, to conduct an analysis of implementation of the review of UNAMID; in this regard, takes note of the Secretary-General’s efforts to make recommendations on the future of UNAMID, including its exit strategy, as requested by the Security Council in paragraph 7 of resolution 2173; concurs that UNAMID’s long-term planning should be based upon progress towards the mission’s benchmarks as set out in the Secretary-General’s report of 16 October 2012 (S/2012/771) and subsequently refined in his report of 25 February 2014 (S/2014/138) and 15 April 2014 (S/2014/279) (Annex A); takes note that the Secretary General, in his report of 26 May 2015(S/2015/378), emphasizes that a political settlement in Darfur and direct talks between Government and the non‑signatory armed movements, starting with a cessation of hostilities in Darfur, is essential to re-establishing peace in Darfur and is primary to the achievement of these benchmarks;
27. Takes note of the consultations between the UN, the AU and the Government of Sudan, notably in the framework of the Joint Working Group to develop an exit strategy in accordance with the mission’s benchmarks and in response to paragraph 7 of resolution 2173; calls for early resumption of consultations between the AU, the UN and the Government of Sudan in this regard; looks forward to the Secretary-General’s recommendations, including by building on any agreed recommendations of the Joint Working Group; and undertakes to consider the Secretary-General’s recommendations in due course;
28. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Council every 90 days following adoption of this resolution on UNAMID, including:
(i) information on the political, humanitarian and security situation in Darfur, including detailed reporting on incidents of violence and attacks against civilians, by whomsoever perpetrated;
(ii) information on violations of the Status of Forces Agreement, including those involving attacks or threats of attack on UNAMID, as well as violations of international humanitarian law perpetrated by any party to the conflict;
(iii) developments and progress towards achievement of UNAMID’s strategic priorities and benchmarks;
(iv) developments and progress in addressing the challenges facing UNAMID as identified in the review of UNAMID;
(v) and on the implementation of this resolution;
29. Decides to remain seized of the matter.
Annex A: UNAMID benchmarks as set out in Annex 1 of the Secretary-General report of 15 April 2014 (S/2014/279)
Benchmark 1: inclusive peace process through mediation between the Government and non-signatory armed movements on the basis of the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur
Requirements for progress would include a commitment on the part of the Government of the Sudan and non-signatory movements to reach a comprehensive negotiated political settlement to the conflict and adhere to its full and timely implementation; and credible Darfur-based internal dialogue and consultations that seek to reflect the views of the civilian population, including women, on Darfur in the peace process.
•The Government and the non-signatory movements enter into direct negotiations brokered by the Joint African Union-United Nations Chief Mediator for Darfur over an all-inclusive comprehensive settlement to the Darfur conflict within the context of the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur.
•The signatory parties, with the support of international partners, implement the provisions of the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur, which remain essential in addressing the root causes of conflict in Darfur.
•The Government and the non-signatory movements conclude and observe a comprehensive and inclusive cessation of hostilities.
•The outcomes of the Darfur peace process are reflected in a national constitutional process supported by the African Union High-level Implementation Panel for the Sudan, as provided for in the framework for African Union and United Nations facilitation of the Darfur peace process.
Darfur-based internal dialogue and consultations;
•Darfur-based internal dialogue and consultations take place in an inclusive and transparent environment that ensures the proportional representation of Darfuris and respect for the human rights of participants, as monitored by African Union-United Nations Hybrid Operation in Darfur (UNAMID).
•The outcomes of the Darfur-based internal dialogue and consultations are widely disseminated and implemented in a manner that promotes and consolidates peace and stability in Darfur.
•A functioning Darfur Regional Authority that oversees the implementation of the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur, in conjunction with the Government of the Sudan.
Benchmark 2: protection of civilians and unhindered humanitarian access and the safety and security of humanitarian personnel
Requirements for progress would include the demonstrated commitment of the parties to the conflict, including Government forces, non-signatory movements and other armed groups, to cease hostilities and respect and implement ceasefire and security arrangements; the demonstrated commitment of the parties to the conflict to implement measures to protect civilians (or promote/respect human rights); the demonstrated commitment of the parties to the conflict to allow unrestricted humanitarian access; the willingness of local actors to facilitate the safe, voluntary and sustainable return, reintegration or resettlement of internally displaced persons and refugees; improvement of TCC/PCC performance and equipment; support by the international donor community for humanitarian activities and, where appropriate, early recovery and rehabilitation; the improved coordination between UNAMID and humanitarian actors with regard to the facilitation of the deli very of humanitarian assistance and the safety and security of humanitarian personnel; and the commitment of the Government of the Sudan at the national and local levels to improve the capacity of its security, judicial and penal institutions to promote and protect human rights.
Protection of civilians from imminent threats of physical violence;
•Civilians facing imminent threats of physical violence are protected by UNAMID.
•Civilians at risk of physical attack, in particular women and children, carry out livelihood activities safely and securely under UNAMID protection.
•Civilians receive emergency medical assistance from UNAMID, including through evacuation to medical facilities, in extreme circumstances (i.e., when humanitarian actors are unable to assist).
•Security and stability (as indicated by an absence of serious crime or violent conflict) for civilians within camps for internally displaced persons and temporary settlements.
•Security and stability (as indicated by an absence of serious crime or violent conflict) for civilians in areas outside of camps for internally displaced persons and temporary settlements, including in particular in areas adjacent to camps.
•Reduction in the number of violent crimes against civilians.
•Reduction in human rights violations, including incidents of sexual and gender-based violence, as recorded by UNAMID.
•Reduction in the recruitment of child soldiers by the parties to the conflict.
•Improved environment for the protection of civil and political rights, including through the development of sustainable foundations for professional, democratic policing and law enforcement.
•Trials monitored by UNAMID are fair and in accordance with international legal standards and practices.
•The prevalence of arms and armed actors is reduced through the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration of combatants in accordance with the provisions of the Doha Document for Peace in Darfur.
•Threats to civilians posed by unexploded ordnance are addressed through, inter alia, the safe disposal of such materials and through risk-awareness training.
Safe, timely and unhindered humanitarian access and safety and security for humanitarian personnel;
•Humanitarian actors requesting UNAMID protection and other support are able to conduct operations (e.g., inter alia aid delivery and distribution and needs assessments) in a safe, timely and unhindered manner.
•Humanitarian actors and their property are safe and secure, in particular when UNAMID protection is provided.
•Parties to the conflict honour their commitments and international obligations to combat all acts of sexual violence against women, men and children and put an end to the recruitment and use of child soldiers.
Benchmark 3: prevention or mitigation of community conflict through mediation and, in conjunction with the United Nations country team, measures to address its root causes
Requirements for progress would include willingness on the part of the authorities and traditional community leaders to play a constructive role in resolving intercommunal conflict peacefully; the provision of access to UNAMID to facilitate mediation efforts; strengthened traditional conflict resolution mechanisms and greater respect thereof; the inclusion of measures in reconciliation agreements to address the root causes of intercommunal conflict; a willingness on the part of the authorities and other parties to the conflict to fulfil their responsibilities in regard to preventing or resolving intercommunal clashes; and the provision of access to the United Nations Country Team to enable measures that address root causes related to natural resources, recovery and reconstruction.
•Dialogue between pastoralist and agriculturalist communities over peaceful coexistence and shared access to natural resources, in particular prior to and during the migration season.
•Interventions by the authorities and traditional community mediators, facilitated by UNAMID, that prevent or resolve violent intercommunal conflict.
•Dialogue between conflicting parties over local settlements to violent intercommunal conflict.
•Conflicting parties enter into and adhere to local agreements that settle violent intercommunal conflict.
•Reduction in the number of incidents of and new displacement resulting from intercommunal conflict.
•Transitional justice mechanisms, including the National Human Rights Commission, the Special Court for Darfur and the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, are established and operating in accordance with international human rights standards and best practice.
•Improved access to justice through the adoption of measures aimed at enhancing victims’ rights to truth, justice and remedy.